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Annu Rev Genet. 2003;37:153-95.

Unusual life style of giant chlorella viruses.

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Nebraska Center for Virology and Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0722, USA.


Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, dsDNA viruses that replicate in certain unicellular, eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae. Its 330-kb genome contains approximately 373 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 50% of these genes resemble proteins of known function, including many that are unexpected for a virus, e.g., ornithine decarboxylase, hyaluronan synthase, GDP-D-mannose 4,6 dehydratase, and a potassium ion channel protein. In addition to their large genome size, the chlorella viruses have other features that distinguish them from most viruses. These features include: (a) The viruses encode multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases. (b) The viruses encode at least some, if not all, of the enzymes required to glycosylate their proteins. (c) PBCV-1 has at least three types of introns, a self-splicing intron in a transcription factor-like gene, a spliceosomal processed intron in its DNA polymerase gene, and a small intron in one of its tRNA genes. (d) Many chlorella virus-encoded proteins are either the smallest or among the smallest proteins of their class. (e) Accumulating evidence indicates that the chlorella viruses have a very long evolutionary history.

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