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J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Nov;38(11):1642-9.

Effects of whole blood, crystalloid, and colloid resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock on renal damage in rats: an ultrastructural study.

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Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakir, Turkey.



The aim of this study was to determine the effects of whole blood, crystalloid, and colloid treatment on histopathologic damage of kidney induced by hemorrhagic shock in rats.


Fifty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 8 groups. The carotid artery was cannulated, and systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), heart rate (HR), and rectal temperature (RT) were observed during the procedure. The jugular vein also was cannulated, and the SAP was decreased by aspiration of 75% of blood through the jugular vein in the control (nonresuscitated) and study (resuscitated) groups, whereas blood was not diminished in the sham group. The hemorrhagic shock was permitted to last 45 minutes; then, the study group rats were resuscitated with heparinized shed autologous whole blood (WB), normal saline (NS), Lactated Ringer's solution (LR), hydroxyethyl starch 6% (HES6), hydroxyethyl starch 10% (HES10), or dextran 40 (D40). Histopathologic evaluation was performed under light and electron microscope.


The RT, SAP, and DAP decreased, and HR increased significantly in the control and study groups during the shock period compared with those of sham group. After volume resuscitation, these parameters changed to preshock levels. Electron and light microscopic examinations of kidneys showed severe proximal tubular degeneration with moderate glomerular damage in the control group; moderate proximal tubular degeneration with mild glomerular damage in the NS, LR, HES6, and HES10 groups; and mild proximal tubular degeneration with no evidence of glomerular damage in the WB and D-40 groups.


The characteristic ultrastructural features of hemorrhagic shock appear to be severe tubular degeneration and mild to moderate changes in glomeruli. Resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock with whole blood or dextran 40 solution appears to be most favorable therapy in preventing ultrastructural renal damage in rats.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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