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Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Nov 1;9(14):5271-81.

Gene amplifications associated with the development of hormone-resistant prostate cancer.

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University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.



Hormone resistance remains a significant clinical problem in prostate cancer with few therapeutic options. Research into mechanisms of hormone resistance is essential.


We analyzed 38 paired (prehormone/posthormone resistance) prostate cancer samples using the Vysis GenoSensor. Archival microdissected tumor DNA was extracted, amplified, labeled, and hybridized to Amplionc I DNA microarrays containing 57 oncogenes.


Genetic instability increased during progression from hormone-sensitive to hormone-resistant cancer (P = 0.008). Amplification frequencies of 15 genes (TERC, MYBL3, HRAS, PI3KCA, JUNB, LAMC2, RAF1, MYC, GARP, SAS, FGFR1, PGY1, MYCL1, MYB, FGR) increased by >10% during hormone escape. Receptor tyrosine kinases were amplified in 73% of cases; this was unrelated to development of hormone resistance. However, downstream receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways showed increased amplification rates in resistant tumors for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (FGR/Src-2, HRAS, and RAF1; P = 0.005) and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase pathways (FGR/Src-2, PI3K, and Akt; P = 0.046). Transcription factors regulated by these pathways were also more frequently amplified after escape (MYC family: 21% before versus 63% after, P = 0.027; MYB family: 26% before versus 53% after, P = 0.18).


Development of clinical hormone escape is linked to phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. These pathways may function independently of the androgen receptor or via androgen receptor activation by phosphorylation, providing novel therapeutic targets.

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