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J Vet Med Sci. 2003 Oct;65(10):1141-3.

Effects of midazolam-butorphanol, acepromazine-butorphanol and medetomidine on an induction dose of propofol and their compatibility in dogs.

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The Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.


The effects of acepromazine-butorphanol (AB), midazolam-butorphanol (MB) and medetomidine (Med) on the induction dose of propofol and their compatibility with propofol were evaluated in client-owned dogs. All premedications induced good to excellent sedation and the induction dose of propofol was considerably reduced. Of the tested premedicants, Med induced the deepest sedation and the most potent dose-sparing effect. Induction of anesthesia was excellent to good in all dogs except for one dog premedicated with MB. Most dogs premedicated with AB or MB showed temporary apnea. Although other adverse effects such as bradycardia or hypotension may also occur, premedication with MB, AB or Med is a valuable technique for the induction of anesthesia with propofol in dogs in a clinical setting.

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