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Regul Pept. 2003 Nov 15;116(1-3):163-71.

Effect of the brain and suboesophageal ganglion on pupal development in Helicoverpa armigera through regulation of FXPRLamide neuropeptides.

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Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230027, China.


Recent studies in Helicoverpa armigera report a novel role for diapause hormone (DH), pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and three other FXPRLamide neuropeptides secreted from suboesophageal ganglion (SG) in terminating pupal diapause. In the present paper, we investigated the role of these five FXPRLamide family neuropeptides on pupal development. Although removal of SG could not make nondiapause-destined pupae enter diapause-like status, it did make them eclose approximately 0.6-1.2 days later when compared with the controls. The results of competitive ELISAs showed a high level of FXPRLamide titer in the hemolymph of the SG-removed pupae and this may be due to the expression of the DH-PBAN gene in tissues other than SG. DH-PBAN mRNA and peptides were also detected in the thoracic ganglia (TGs) by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. The expression of DH-PBAN gene in the TGs of the SG-removed pupae is significantly higher than that in normal pupae by quantitative PCR and immunocytochemistry. Decerebration experiments proved that the decerebrated pupae could enter diapause-like status through down-regulation of FXPRLamide titer in hemolymph. Our studies confirm that the brain plays an important role in the determination of pupal development by regulating the synthesis and release of FXPRLamide neuropeptides in H. armigera. Thus, the function of FXPRLamide peptides in H. armigera is closely correlated with pupal development.

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