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Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Nov;136(5):791-6.

Acute endophthalmitis following intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection.

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Stanford University Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford, California, USA.



To report the clinical features, causative organisms, management, and visual acuity outcomes of eight eyes of eight patients who developed acute postoperative endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA).


Retrospective, multicenter, interventional, case series.


A retrospective, interventional, case series of all patients with acute postoperative endophthalmitis following IVTA at seven academic clinical centers between March 2001 and July 2002.


A total of 922 IVTAs were performed. Eight eyes of eight patients with acute postoperative endophthalmitis were identified in the 6 weeks following IVTA for an incidence of 0.87% (95% confidence interval of 0.38% to 1.70%). The median time to presentation was 7.5 days (range, 1-15 days) after IVTA. The most common clinical findings were iritis (n = 8), vitritis (n = 8), hypopyon (n = 8), pain (n = 7), red eye (n = 6), and decreased vision (n = 5). The median presenting visual acuity was 20/1127 (range, 20/60 to light perception). Initial treatment consisted of vitreous tap and injection of antibiotics (n = 6) or pars plana vitrectomy and injection of intravitreal antibiotics (n = 2). Intraocular cultures yielded identification in seven patients. One demonstrated intracellular gram-positive cocci in chains with numerous polymorphonuclear cells on gram stain. The median postinfection vision was 20/400 (range, 20/40 to no light perception). Three patients ended up with no light perception visual acuity, including enucleation (n = 1) and phthisis (n = 1).


Acute postoperative endophthalmitis following IVTA occurs rapidly and can result in severe loss of vision.

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