Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Feb;24(2):230-9. Epub 2003 Oct 30.

Decoding transcriptional programs regulated by PPARs and LXRs in the macrophage: effects on lipid homeostasis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

Author information

  • 1Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, Calif 92093-0651, USA.


Macrophages play essential roles in immunity and homeostasis. As professional scavengers, macrophages phagocytose microbes and apoptotic and necrotic cells and take up modified lipoprotein particles. These functions require tightly regulated mechanisms for the processing and disposal of cellular lipids. Under pathological conditions, arterial wall macrophages become foam cells by accumulating large amounts of cholesterol, contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and liver X receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors that have emerged as key regulators of macrophage homeostasis. PPARs and LXRs control transcriptional programs involved in processes of lipid uptake and efflux, lipogenesis, and lipoprotein metabolism. In addition, PPARs and LXRs negatively regulate transcriptional programs involved in the development of inflammatory responses. This review summarizes recent efforts to decode the differential and overlapping roles of PPARs and LXRs in the context of macrophage lipid homeostasis and the control of inflammation.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center