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Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 1998 Nov;13(8):695-711.

Neurobehavioral symptoms and family functioning in traumatically brain-injured adults.

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University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74136, USA.


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in a myriad of symptoms across physical, cognitive, and neurobehavioral domains. Despite inherent limitations associated with physical or cognitive impairments, the extant literature suggests that neurobehavioral symptoms tend to be the most distressing symptoms for the family and are more strongly related to poor outcome for the patient. The Neuropsychology Behavior and Affect Profile (NBAP) along with the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) and the Perceived Stress Scale were administered to 153 family members of persons who had sustained a TBI. The results provide new normative data and statistical support for the NBAP as a promising measure of neurobehavioral symptomatology following TBI. The correlation of.54 (p <.01) between FAD-GF and Full Scale NBAP scores provides powerful support for the hypothesis that family dysfunction is related to the presence of neurobehavioral symptoms in the patient. NBAP domains of Depression, Inappropriateness, Pragnosia, and Indifference appear most strongly related to family functioning and also bear a significant relationship to caregiver stress level and patient unemployment, whereas injury severity had little impact on either family functioning or neurobehavioral symptoms. The findings reinforce the significance of neurobehavioral symptoms and fortify their proposed link to family dysfunction post-TBI.

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