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J Biol Chem. 2004 Jan 23;279(4):2927-36. Epub 2003 Oct 28.

Characterization of endostatin binding to heparin and heparan sulfate by surface plasmon resonance and molecular modeling: role of divalent cations.

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Institut de Biologie Structurale CEA-CNRS-UJF, UMR 5075, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble Cedex 01, France.


Endostatin (20 kDa) is a C-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII that is localized in vascular basement membrane zones in various organs. It binds zinc, heparin/heparan sulfate, laminin, and sulfatides and inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. Here we determined the kinetics and affinity of the interaction of endostatin with heparin/heparan sulfate and investigated the effects of divalent cations on these interactions and on the biological activities of endostatin. The binding of human recombinant endostatin to heparin and heparan sulfate was studied by surface plasmon resonance using BIAcore technology and further characterized by docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic data, evaluated using a 1:1 interaction model, showed that heparan sulfate bound to and dissociated from endostatin faster than heparin and that endostatin bound to heparin and heparan sulfate with a moderate affinity (K(D) approximately 2 microm). Molecular modeling of the complex between endostatin and heparin oligosaccharides predicted that, compared with mutagenesis studies, two further arginine residues, Arg(47) and Arg(66), participated in the binding. The binding of endostatin to heparin and heparan sulfate required the presence of divalent cations. The addition of ZnCl(2) to endostatin enhanced its binding to heparan sulfate by approximately 40% as well as its antiproliferative effect on endothelial cells stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-2, suggesting that this activity is mediated by the binding of endostatin to heparan sulfate. In contrast, no increase in the antiangiogenic and anti-proliferative activities of endostatin promoted by vascular endothelial growth factor was observed upon the addition of zinc.

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