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Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003 Nov;112(6):1666-76; quiz 1677; discussion 1678-9.

Scaphoid nonunion: diagnosis and treatment.

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Stanford University Medical Center, USA.


After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the anatomy and pathophysiology of scaphoid fractures. 2. Understand the risk factors for scaphoid nonunion. 3. Identify treatment options for scaphoid nonunion and their respective advantages and disadvantages. 4. Identify salvage procedures for scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse of the wrist. Scaphoid nonunion is a common but difficult problem for hand surgeons. The diagnosis of scaphoid nonunion is often delayed, and therefore, treatment must be tailored to the type of fracture, the duration of nonunion, and the presence or absence of resulting arthritis. This article reviews the diagnosis and work-up of scaphoid nonunion, classification schemes for scaphoid nonunion, and various treatment options, including internal fixation, nonvascularized and vascularized bone grafting, and salvage procedures.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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