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J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2003 Jun;30(3):185-219.

Physiologically-based pharmacokinetics and molecular pharmacodynamics of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and its active metabolite in tumor-bearing mice.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.


A whole-body physiologically-based model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics of the ansamycin benzoquinone antibiotic 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) and its active metabolite 17-(amino-)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AG) in blood, normal organs (lung, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle) and implanted human tumor xenograft in nude mice. The distribution of 17 AAG in all organs was described by diffusion-limited exchange models, while that of 17 AG was described by perfusion-limited models. The intrinsic clearances of 17AAG and 17AG in the liver were uniquely identified using local models and were estimated to be 4.93 ml/hr and 3.34 ml/hr. It was also estimated that the formation of 17AG in liver accounted for 40% of the 17AAG intrinsic clearance. The model for the distribution of both 17AAG and 17AG in the human breast cancer tumor xenograft included vascular, interstitial and intracellular compartments, which yielded the predicted cellular concentrations of 17AAG and 17AG two to three times higher than the corresponding whole tissue measurements at steady state. Estimates of the vascular-interstitial permeability surface-area product were similar for 17AAG and 17AG (0.23 ml/hr and 0.26 ml/hr). However, the interstitial to cellular transport rate of 17AG was three-fold greater than that of 17AAG, which resulted in the preferential uptake of 17AG over 17AAG in tumor. Indirect response models were developed to describe the combined action of 17AAG and 17AG on the onco-proteins Raf-1 and p185erbB2 in tumor. The half-life of endogenous protein turnover was estimated to be 22.6 hr for Raf-1 and 8.6 hr for p185erbB2, and both were comparable to corresponding values measured in vitro. A model for the molecular chaperon heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 was developed based on the molecular mechanism of heat shock auto-regulation and the action of 17AAG and 17AG on these proteins. The model provided in vivo estimates of endogenous HSP70 and HSP90 turnover. In modeling pharmacokmetics and pharmacodynamics, Bayesian inference was employed to estimate the kinetic, physiological and molecular parameters when prior information was available.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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