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J Magn Reson. 2003 Nov;165(1):59-79.

Broadband 13C-13C adiabatic mixing in solution optimized for high fields.

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Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Building C-1, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Experiments which require mixing among spins with large frequency differences are generally performed with sequences based on composite pulses or computer-optimized cycles. Adiabatic pulses generally offer several advantages over other approaches, including greater single spin inversion bandwidths and tolerance to RF inhomogeneity. Here, a novel theoretical framework is presented in order to understand how spin-spin interactions are influenced by adiabatic inversion pulses, and insights from this approach are used to design more efficient adiabatic coherence exchange experiments. For very large frequency differences, this new approach generally offers improved results over previously applied mixing sequences, as applied to 13C-13C experiments which are the basis of modern sidechain assignment techniques in proteins. It is also anticipated that the approach presented here will be applicable to the analysis of various alternative approaches to adiabatic mixing.

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