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J Music Ther. 2003 Fall;40(3):189-211.

The effects of music listening after a stressful task on immune functions, neuroendocrine responses, and emotional states in college students.

Author information

1
Gifu Prefectural Music Therapy and Research Center, Japan. erihirok@ku.edu

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to high-uplifting or low-uplifting music after a stressful task on (a) immune functions, (b) neuroendocrine responses, and (c) emotional states in college students. Musical selections that were evaluated as high-uplifting or low-uplifting by Japanese college students were used as musical stimuli. Eighteen Japanese subjects performed stressful tasks before they experienced each of these experimental conditions: (a) high-uplifting music, (b) low-uplifting music, and (c) silence. Subjects' emotional states, the Secretory IgA (S-IgA) level, active natural killer (NK) cell level, the numbers of T lymphocyte CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine levels were measured before and after each experimental condition. Results indicated low-uplifting music had a trend of increasing a sense of well-being. High-uplifting music showed trends of increasing the norepinephrine level, liveliness, and decreasing depression. Active NK cells were decreased after 20 min of silence. Results of the study were inconclusive, but high-uplifting and low-uplifting music had different effects on immune, neuroendocrine, and psychological responses. Classification of music is important to research that examines the effects of music on these responses. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

PMID:
14567734
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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