Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003 Aug;22(8 Suppl):S139-48.

Amoxicillin/clavulanate for infections in infants and children: past, present and future.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

Chemical synthesis of the penicillin nucleus in the 1950s made introduction of a broad array of new and important antimicrobials, including ampicillin and amoxicillin, possible. Ampicillin was introduced in 1962 in oral and parenteral forms as the first of the semisynthetic penicillins to provide increased activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Amoxicillin replaced oral ampicillin beginning in 1974 because amoxicillin resulted in higher and more prolonged serum concentrations than did equivalent doses of ampicillin. Amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) was introduced in the United States in 1984 to enhance the activity of amoxicillin by addition of the beta-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid. During the past 20 years, amoxicillin/clavulanate has proven effective for a variety of pediatric infectious diseases, particularly acute otitis media (AOM). In 2001, a new pediatric formulation, high dose amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin ES-600) was approved for use in the United States. The high dose preparation addressed the needs of pediatricians by providing greater amounts of amoxicillin while maintaining the same daily dose of clavulanic acid as the regular strength formulation. Doubling the dose of amoxicillin for management of recurrent and persistent AOM was recommended in 1999 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of concern about the increased incidence of nonsusceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The original formulation combined amoxicillin/clavulanate in a 4:1 ratio and was followed by a 7:1 ratio formulation. The high dose formulation (600 mg of amoxicillin per 5 ml) provides a 14:1 ratio of amoxicillin to clavulanate. Although management of AOM will likely undergo changes in the coming years, amoxicillin is expected to remain first line therapy for AOM. For children who fail initial therapy with amoxicillin, high dose amoxicillin/clavulanate, an oral cephalosporin or parenteral ceftriaxone is recommended.

PMID:
14567000
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wolters Kluwer
    Loading ...
    Support Center