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J Trauma. 2003 Oct;55(4):626-30.

The pattern of gunshot injuries in a communal clash as seen in two Nigerian teaching hospitals.

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Department of Surgery, Ladoke Akintola Univeristy of Technology, Oshogbo, Nigeria.



The pattern of gunshot injury in the Ife-Modakeke communal clash between March 3 and May 23, 1999 was analyzed in this study.


The history was recorded for each patient presenting at the hospital with gunshot injuries from the clash. Each was examined and followed up through subsequent treatment in the wards and clinics.


The study included 185 patients. The male-to-female ratio was 22.1 to 1, and 45.9% of the patients ranged in age from 21 to 30 years. The mean age was 28.3 +/- 11.2 years, and the mortality rate was 8.6%. There were 120 warriors and 65 noncombatants. Government workers and students made up most of the noncombatants (42.5%), whereas drivers and farmers constituted the vast majority of the warriors (23.3%). Injury to the lower limbs was the most commonly seen injury (54.6%). Sustained fractures and femoral fractures were the most common fracture (n = 100, 54.1%). Head and colonic injuries were the greatest cause of mortality.


For civilian gunshot injuries, morbidity and mortality rates are high in the less developed countries because of inadequate prehospital and hospital care. Efforts should be made to improve these facilities.

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