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Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2003 Oct;124(4):395-402.

Evaluation of friction of stainless steel and esthetic self-ligating brackets in various bracket-archwire combinations.

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  • 1Department of Orthodontics, University of Pavia, Italy.


This study measured and compared the level of frictional resistance generated between stainless steel self-ligating brackets (Damon SL II, SDS Ormco, Glendora, Calif), polycarbonate self-ligating brackets (Oyster, Gestenco International, Göthenburg, Sweden), and conventional stainless steel brackets (Victory Series, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), and 3 different orthodontic wire alloys: stainless steel (Stainless Steel, SDS Ormco), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti, SDS Ormco), and beta-titanium (TMA, SDS Ormco). All brackets had a.022-in slot, whereas the orthodontic wire alloys were tested in 3 different sections:.016,.017 x.025, and.019 x 0.025 in. Each of the 27 bracket and archwire combinations was tested 10 times, and each test was performed with a new bracket-wire sample. Both static and kinetic friction were measured on a custom-designed apparatus. All data were statistically analyzed (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests). Stainless steel self-ligating brackets generated significantly lower static and kinetic frictional forces than both conventional stainless steel and polycarbonate self-ligating brackets, which showed no significant differences between them. Beta-titanium archwires had higher frictional resistances than stainless steel and nickel-titanium archwires. No significant differences were found between stainless steel and nickel-titanium archwires. All brackets showed higher static and kinetic frictional forces as the wire size increased.

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