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Shock. 2003 Nov;20(5):431-6.

Lipopolysaccharide dose response in baboons.

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Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Vienna, Austria.


A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) dose-response study in an experimental baboon endotoxemia model is presented to define the relevance of this model compared with human endotoxemia. We describe acute and subacute endotoxemic models in baboons, the first evoked by bolus injection of LPS (1 mg, 0.1 mg, or 4 ng per kg of Escherichia coli LPS), and the second evoked by infusion of 1.5 mg/kg of E. coli LPS over 30 min. We report the analysis of LPS clearance, the kinetics of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL) 6, and IL-8 expression on the protein as well as on the mRNA level, change in blood counts (white and red blood cells and circulating platelets), and several hemodynamic parameters such as temperature, cardiac index, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure via multiple sampling. The resulting data are compared with previously published human data. Our results show that the LPS-induced kinetics of cytokine release, as well as of hemodynamic and hematologic changes in baboons, were similar to those observed in humans, even though baboons required a approximately 104-fold higher initial LPS dose to develop these manifestations. Hence, we demonstrate that endotoxemia in baboons qualitatively, yet not quantitatively, resembles endotoxemia in humans and, therefore, proves to constitute a useful model for studying the pathogenic mechanisms of sepsis in relation to humans.

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