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Am J Cardiol. 2003 Oct 15;92(8):930-5.

Incidence, predictors, and prognostic implications of bleeding and blood transfusion following percutaneous coronary interventions.

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Cardiovascular Research Institute and Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.


Bleeding related to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) occurs relatively frequently. We retrospectively investigated the incidence, predictors, and prognostic impact of periprocedural bleeding and transfusion in 10,974 patients who underwent PCI. Bleeding definitions were based on Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) criteria: (1) major bleeding (n = 588; 5.4%): if patients had a hemorrhagic stroke or if hematocrit decreased >15 points or by 10 to 15 points with clinical bleeding; (2) minor bleeding (n = 1,394; 12.7%): if hematocrit decreased <10 points with clinical bleeding or by 10 to 15 points without clinical bleeding; and (3) no bleeding (n = 8,992; 81.9%): if hematocrit decreased <10 points without clinical bleeding. Patients with major bleeding were older than patients with minor or no bleeding (67.8 +/- 11 vs 65.9 +/- 11 vs 63.6 +/- 11 years, respectively; p <0.001) and more often experienced intraprocedural complications, such as emergency use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (13.6% vs 6.5% vs 2.3%, respectively; p <0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the use of an intra-aortic balloon pump (odds ratio [OR] 3.0, p <0.0001), procedural hypotension (OR 2.9, p <0.001), and age >80 years (OR 1.9 compared with age <50 years, p = 0.001) as the strongest predictors for major bleeding. Patients who had major bleeding had higher in-hospital and 1-year mortality compared with patients with minor or no bleeding. Bleeding was an independent predictor of in-hospital death. Thus, periprocedural major bleeding occurs relatively frequently and is associated with adverse outcomes. Patients >80 years of age who experience intraprocedural complications are at particularly high risk.

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