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Trends Immunol. 2003 Oct;24(10):519-22.

Differential signaling by CpG DNA in DCs and B cells: not just TLR9.

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Division of Therapeutic Proteins, Center for Biologics Research and Evaluation, Food and Drug Administration, Bldg 29A Rm 3B19, 8800 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) act on Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) that is expressed on B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to stimulate the innate immune system, however, different types of CpG ODNs induce distinct responses. Recent papers suggest some CpG ODNs could require a second receptor or cofactor to signal. The different signaling complexes assembled might impact on the affinity with which CpG ODNs signal to TLR9 or activate additional pathways that lead to distinct immune responses.

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