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J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 19;278(51):51360-71. Epub 2003 Oct 9.

Inactivation of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase by peroxynitrite. Implications for cytotoxicity and alcohol-induced liver injury.

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Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Taegu 702-701, Korea.


Recently, we demonstrated that the control of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox balance and oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) by supplying NADPH for antioxidant systems. We investigated whether the ICDH would be a vulnerable target of peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) as a purified enzyme, in intact cells, and in liver mitochondria from ethanol-fed rats. Synthetic peroxynitrite and 3-morpholinosydnomine N-ethylcarbamide (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite-generating compound, inactivated ICDH in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The inactivation of ICDH by peroxynitrite or SIN-1 was reversed by dithiothreitol. Loss of enzyme activity was associated with the depletion of the thiol groups in protein. Immunoblotting analysis of peroxynitrite-modified ICDH indicates that S-nitrosylation of cysteine and nitration of tyrosine residues are the predominant modifications. Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with tryptic digestion of protein, we found that peroxynitrite forms S-nitrosothiol adducts on Cys305 and Cys387 of ICDH. Nitration of Tyr280 was also identified, however, this modification did not significantly affect the activity of ICDH. These results indicate that S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues on ICDH is a mechanism involving the inactivation of ICDH by peroxynitrite. The structural alterations of modified enzyme were indicated by the changes in protease susceptibility and binding of the hydrophobic probe 8-anilino-1-napthalene sulfonic acid. When U937 cells were incubated with 100 microM SIN-1 bolus, a significant decrease in both cytosolic and mitochondrial ICDH activities were observed. Using immunoprecipitation and ESI-MS, we were also able to isolate and positively identify S-nitrosylated and nitrated mitochondrial ICDH from SIN-1-treated U937 cells as well as liver from ethanol-fed rats. Inactivation of ICDH resulted in the pro-oxidant state of cells reflected by an increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species, a decrease in the ratio of [NADPH]/[NADPH + NADP+], and a decrease in the efficiency of reduced glutathione turnover. The peroxynitrite-mediated damage to ICDH may result in the perturbation of the cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms and subsequently lead to a pro-oxidant condition.

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