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FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003 Oct;27(4):449-79.

Evolution of the soluble diiron monooxygenases.

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Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA.


Based on structural, biochemical, and genetic data, the soluble diiron monooxygenases can be divided into four groups: the soluble methane monooxygenases, the Amo alkene monooxygenase of Rhodococcus corallinus B-276, the phenol hydroxylases, and the four-component alkene/aromatic monooxygenases. The limited phylogenetic distribution of these enzymes among bacteria, together with available genetic evidence, indicates that they have been spread largely through horizontal gene transfer. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that the alpha- and beta-oxygenase subunits are paralogous proteins and were derived from an ancient gene duplication of a carboxylate-bridged diiron protein, with subsequent divergence yielding a catalytic alpha-oxygenase subunit and a structural beta-oxygenase subunit. The oxidoreductase and ferredoxin components of these enzymes are likely to have been acquired by horizontal transfer from ancestors common to unrelated diiron and Rieske center oxygenases and other enzymes. The cumulative results of phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that the alkene/aromatic monooxygenases diverged first from the last common ancestor for these enzymes, followed by the phenol hydroxylases, Amo alkene monooxygenase, and methane monooxygenases.

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