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Urology. 2003 Oct;62(4):737-41.

Risk factors for spontaneous bladder perforation after augmentation cystoplasty.

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Division of Pediatric Urology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229-3039, USA.



To present our experience with the use of stomach, ileum, and colon for augmentation cystoplasty to examine the incidence of, and risk factors for, spontaneous perforation. Spontaneous bladder perforation is a potentially life-threatening complication of augmentation cystoplasty with a reported incidence of up to 13%.


A retrospective review of medical records from 1988 to 2001 identified 107 children (57 males and 50 females) who underwent augmentation cystoplasty at our institution. The etiology for bladder dysfunction included myelomeningocele, VATER (vertebral defects, imperforate anus, tracheoesophageal fistula, radial and renal dysplasia) syndrome, bladder and cloacal exstrophy, posterior urethral valves, and pelvic malignancy. Thirteen patients also had end-stage renal disease.


The median follow-up was 7.4 years. Gastrocystoplasty was performed in 50 children (47%), ileocystoplasty in 37 (35%), colocystoplasty in 18 (17%), and gastric-ileal composite neobladder in 2 (2%). Augmentation cystoplasty procedures were performed using a standard technique that included a two-layer anastomosis. Additional procedures at the time of reconstruction included Mitrofanoff neourethra in 66 patients (62%) and bladder neck repair in 44 (41%). Postoperatively, most patients started a strict incremental catheterization regimen. The overall incidence of bladder perforation was 5%, with one traumatic (1%) and four spontaneous (4%) perforations. All patients recovered uneventfully after exploratory laparotomy.


We believe that the relatively low incidence of spontaneous bladder perforation encountered in this series may be explained by the large number of patients with gastrocystoplasty, as well as our strict adherence to a postoperative incremental catheterization program.

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