Send to

Choose Destination
Biotechnol Adv. 1995;13(2):209-34.

Fungal production of citric acid.

Author information

Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.


Citric acid is the principal organic acid found in citrus fruits. To meet increasing demands it is produced from carbohydrate feedstock by fermentation with the fungus Aspergillus niger and the yeasts of Candida spp. Effect of various fermentation conditions and the biochemistry of citric acid formation by A. niger have been discussed. Commercially citric acid is produced by surface, submerged and solid state fermentation techniques. Recovery of pure acid from fermentation broth is done primarily by precipitation with lime and also by solvent extraction.


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center