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J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Oct;41(10):4623-9.

Evaluation of the Hodge test and the imipenem-EDTA double-disk synergy test for differentiating metallo-beta-lactamase-producing isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp.

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Department of Laboratory Medicine, Research Institute of Bacterial Resistance, and BK21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seodaemun-ku, Seoul 120-752, Korea.


Gram-negative bacilli with acquired metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) production have been increasingly reported in some countries, necessitating their detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Hodge test and those of the imipenem (IPM)-EDTA, ceftazidime (CAZ)-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA), and CAZ-sodium mercaptoacetic acid (SMA) double-disk synergy tests (DDSTs). The efficiencies of testing CAZ-resistant and IPM-nonsusceptible isolates were also compared. Strains used for the evaluation were known IMP-1 and VIM-2 MBL-producing isolates and consecutive and CAZ-nonsusceptible isolates of pseudomonads and acinetobacters. The performance of the Hodge test was improved by addition of zinc sulfate (140 microg/disk) to an IPM disk. In DDSTs, EDTA (ca. 1,900 microg) disks were better at detecting MBL-producing strains among pseudomonads, while MPA (3 microl) and SMA (3 mg) disks performed better for acinetobacters. EDTA (ca. 750 microg)-plus-SMA (ca. 2 mg) disks performed better than EDTA, MPA, or SMA disks with both organisms. CAZ-SMA DDSTs failed to detect 22 of 80 (28%) MBL-producing acinetobacters. In conclusion, use of an IPM disk and an EDTA (750 microg)-plus-SMA (2 mg) disk improves performance, and testing IPM-nonsusceptible isolates rather than CAZ-resistant isolates could reduce screening work. Further evaluation of the test is required for the detection of other types of MBL-producing gram-negative bacilli.

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