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J Vet Intern Med. 2003 Sep-Oct;17(5):724-6.

Short-term compatibility of furosemide with crystalloid solutions.

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Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.


Parenteral veterinary furosemide is a 50-mg/mL solution with a pH of 8.0-9.3. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a commonly used veterinary formulation of 50 mg/mL of furosemide solution could be diluted in vitro without precipitation. Furosemide 50 mg/mL was diluted to concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/mL with 5% dextrose in water (D5W), 0.9% saline, lactated Ringer solution (LRS), and sterile water. Acidic sterile water and basic sterile water solutions were made by the addition of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide, respectively, for use as controls to assess the effect of pH extremes for each concentration. After furosemide dilution, the final pH of each sample was measured, and samples were grossly and microscopically examined for clarity and crystal formation immediately and 1, 3, 5, and 8 hours after dilution. Gross precipitation and microscopic crystals were immediately observed in the acidic controls. Solutions of 5 mg/mL in LRS and 0.9% saline became slightly cloudy immediately, but no crystals were observed microscopically for 8 hours. Solutions of 10 mg/mL in D5W, 0.9% saline, LRS, and sterile water and solutions of 5 mg/mL in D5W and sterile water and the basic control were grossly clear, and no microscopic crystals were observed for 8 hours. On the basis of the results obtained in this in vitro investigation, this veterinary formulation of furosemide 50 mg/mL can be diluted without precipitation to a concentration of 10 mg/mL with D5W, 0.9% saline, LRS, or sterile water and to 5 mg/mL with D5W or sterile water and held for 8 hours.

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