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Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Apr;30(4):555-63. Epub 2003 Oct 3.

Glucocorticoid inhibition of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor from T cells is independent of control by nuclear factor-kappaB and conserved lymphokine element 0.

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Department of Thoracic Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.


Release of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from T cells is important in the differentiation, maturation, and survival of inflammatory cells. Here the induction of GM-CSF expression from T cells was dependent on transcription and translation and was prevented by dexamethasone. In primary human CD3(+) T cells, up to 3.3 kb of human GM-CSF promoter was strongly activated by PMA + PHA. Mutations in either the -85/-76 nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB site or the activator protein-1 region in the -54/-31 conserved lymphokine element 0 (CLE0) site substantially reduced promoter activity. Both GM-CSF promoter and NF-kappaB-dependent constructs were unresponsive to dexamethasone whereas the release of GM-CSF was potently repressed. Analysis of GM-CSF mRNA and protein expression at various time points and the effect of adding dexamethasone after the stimulus revealed the existence of potent mechanisms of inhibition acting at a translational level. The expression of tristetraproline and HuR, proteins that bind the AU-rich element in the GM-CSF 3'-untranslated region was unaffected by dexamethasone and overall AU-rich element binding activity was unaltered. Taken together our data support an important role for the NF-kappaB and CLE0 sites in the transcriptional control of GM-CSF expression in primary human T cells and suggest that post-transcriptional/translational mechanisms are key mediators of glucocorticoid-dependent repression.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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