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Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Oct;35(10):1755-9.

Coagulation and fibrinolytic responses to manual versus automated snow removal.

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Human Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.



The purpose of this study was to assess coagulation and fibrinolytic responses to snow removal.


Thirteen healthy male subjects (age = 26 +/- 5 yr, height = 179.0 +/- 7.0 cm, weight = 78.7 +/- 16.1 kg, .VO2max = 54.7 +/- 8.9 underwent maximal treadmill stress testing (TM), 10 min of snow shoveling (SS), and 10 min of snow removal using an automated snow thrower (ST). Blood was collected immediately before and after each test and analyzed for von Willebrand Factor antigen (vWF:ag), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity. Data were analyzed using a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance.


vWF:ag significantly increased during TM (84.7 +/- 21.7% normal preexercise, 149.0 +/- 45.6% normal postexercise) but not SS or ST. TM resulted in significant increases in tPA antigen (6.54 +/- 2.76 ng.mL-1 preexercise, 21.39 +/- 10.56 ng.mL-1 postexercise) and both SS and TM caused significant reductions in PAI-1 activity (SS = 15.1 +/- 3.8 AU.mL-1 preexercise, 13.2 +/- 4.3 AU.mL-1 postexercise; TM = 15.3 +/- 3.6 AU.mL-1 preexercise, 10.5 +/- 5.3 AU.mL-1 postexercise). Postexercise PAI-1 activity was significantly lower for TM versus SS. tPA antigen was unchanged after SS and ST, and PAI-1 activity was unchanged after ST.


vWF:ag is unchanged after self-paced snow shoveling and automated snow removal in young, healthy males. Snow shoveling acutely increases fibrinolytic potential in this population, although not to the degree observed after maximal treadmill exercise.

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