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Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;78(4):734-41.

An increase in dietary protein improves the blood glucose response in persons with type 2 diabetes.

Author information

1
Metabolic Research Laboratory and the Section of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Nutrition, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55417, USA. ganno004@tc.umn.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

In single-meal studies, dietary protein does not result in an increase in glucose concentrations in persons with or without type 2 diabetes, even though the resulting amino acids can be used for gluconeogenesis.

OBJECTIVE:

The metabolic effects of a high-protein diet were compared with those of the prototypical healthy (control) diet, which is currently recommended by several scientific organizations.

DESIGN:

The metabolic effects of both diets, consumed for 5 wk each (separated by a 2-5-wk washout period), were studied in 12 subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. The ratio of protein to carbohydrate to fat was 30:40:30 in the high-protein diet and 15:55:30 in the control diet. The subjects remained weight-stable during the study.

RESULTS:

With the fasting glucose concentration used as a baseline from which to determine the area under the curve, the high-protein diet resulted in a 40% decrease in the mean 24-h integrated glucose area response. Glycated hemoglobin decreased 0.8% and 0.3% after 5 wk of the high-protein and control diets, respectively; the difference was significant (P < 0.05). The rate of change over time was also significantly greater after the high-protein diet than after the control diet (P < 0.001). Fasting triacylglycerol was significantly lower after the high-protein diet than after the control diet. Insulin, C-peptide, and free fatty acid concentrations were not significantly different after the 2 diets.

CONCLUSION:

A high-protein diet lowers blood glucose postprandially in persons with type 2 diabetes and improves overall glucose control. However, longer-term studies are necessary to determine the total magnitude of response, possible adverse effects, and the long-term acceptability of the diet.

Comment in

PMID:
14522731
DOI:
10.1093/ajcn/78.4.734
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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