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J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003 Oct;71(5):918-25.

Mediators of outcome of psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence.

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Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA.


This study examined endorsement of 12-step philosophy and engagement in recommended 12-step activities as a mediator of the outcomes of individual plus group counseling for cocaine dependence. Assessments of drug use outcomes and the mediator were made at baseline and monthly for 6 months. Engagement in recommended 12-step activities was found to be a partial statistical mediator of drug use outcomes of individual (plus group) drug counseling, but no evidence for change in the mediator preceding change in drug use was found. In addition, a measure of beliefs about addiction developed to test mediation of outcome of cognitive therapy was found to correlate moderately with drug use outcomes in both cognitive therapy and individual drug counseling.

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