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Health Aff (Millwood). 2003 Sep-Oct;22(5):177-88.

The occupational transformation of the mental health system.

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Nicholas C. Petris Center on Healthcare Markets and Consumer Welfare, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, USA.


The mental health workforce has changed dramatically since the mid-1970s. Nonphysician providers, particularly psychologists and clinical social workers, have become a much larger share of the workforce. While the supply of psychiatrists has been relatively stable, there has been a dramatic increase in the supply of psychologists and social workers. Changes in clinical practice, combined with the continued expansion of managed care into mental health, will largely determine the future composition and supply of the mental health workforce.

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