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Diabetes Care. 2003 Oct;26(10):2722-7.

Improving diabetes processes of care in managed care.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan and the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.



To evaluate the impact of systematic patient evaluation and patient and provider feedback on the processes and intermediate outcomes of diabetes care in Independent Practice Association model internal medicine practices.


Nine practices providing care to managed care patients were randomly assigned as intervention or comparison sites. Intervention-site subjects had Annual Diabetes Assessment Program (ADAP) assessments (HbA(1c), blood pressure, lipids, smoking, retinal photos, urine microalbumin, and foot examination) at years 1 and 2. Comparison-site subjects had ADAP assessments at year 2. At Intervention sites, year 1 ADAP results were reviewed with subjects, mailed to providers, and incorporated into electronic medical records with guideline-generated suggestions for treatment and follow-up. Medical records were evaluated for both groups for the year before both the year 1 and year 2 ADAP assessments. Processes and intermediate outcomes were compared using linear and logistic mixed hierarchical models.


Of 284 eligible subjects, 103 of 173 (60%) at the Intervention sites and 71 of 111 (64%) at the comparison sites participated; 83 of 103 (81%) of the intervention-site subjects returned for follow-up at year 2. Performance of the six recommended assessments improved in intervention-site subjects at year 2 compared with year 1 (5.8 vs. 4.3, P = 0.0001) and compared with comparison-site subjects at year 2 (4.2, P = 0.014). No significant changes were noted in intermediate outcomes.


The ADAP significantly improved processes of care but not intermediate outcomes. Additional interventions are needed to improve intermediate outcomes.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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