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J Infect Dis. 2003 Oct 1;188(7):992-1000. Epub 2003 Sep 16.

Broad nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor cross-resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clinical isolates.

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ViroLogic, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.


Nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are important components of most antiretroviral combination treatment regimens. Using a large collection of clinical isolates, we characterized patterns of cross-resistance among all NRTIs. Drugs were grouped by the effect of the M184V mutation: susceptibility to group 1 drugs (zidovudine, stavudine, tenofovir, and adefovir) increased when M184V was present, whereas susceptibility to group 2 drugs (didanosine, zalcitabine, abacavir, and lamivudine) decreased. Significant cross-resistance was observed among all NRTIs and was most notable when samples with or without M184V were analyzed separately. An increasing number of thymidine-analogue mutations (TAMs) was associated with a progressive reduction in drug susceptibility for all NRTIs. The modulating effect of M184I/V on drug susceptibility was present regardless of the number of TAMs. The broad range of susceptibility observed for viruses containing the same number of TAMs indicates that the genetic correlates of NRTI resistance remain to be fully elucidated.

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