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Med Microbiol Immunol. 2004 May;193(2-3):91-100. Epub 2003 Sep 26.

Nitric oxide donors inhibit the coxsackievirus B3 proteinases 2A and 3C in vitro, virus production in cells, and signs of myocarditis in virus-infected mice.

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Institute for Virology, Medical Center at the Friedrich Schiller University, Winzerlaer Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany.


The antiviral effect of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compounds was investigated. Using bacterially expressed and purified proteinases 2A and 3C of coxsackievirus B3, in vitro assays demonstrated the inhibition of the 2A proteinase activity in the presence of S-nitroso- N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), 4-phenyl-3-furoxancarbonitrile (PFC), glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which releases NO after metabolization, had no effect. The 3C proteinase was inactivated by SNAP, GTN, and ISDN. The vasodilators GTN and ISDN, widely used in the treatment of angina pectoris, exhibited antiviral activity in CVB3-infected GMK cells. CVB3-infected NMRI outbred mice showed significantly reduced signs of myocarditis after treatment with GTN or ISDN. Inhibitors of the cellular inducible NO synthase (iNOS) such as N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), and S-methyl-isothiourea (SMT), had no deleterious effect on CVB3-infected NMRI mice, indicating that endogenous NO synthesis is unlikely to be a major defense mechanism after enterovirus infection of outbred mice.

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