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Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003 Sep;19(5):388-93.

Outcome and influencing factors of external levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis advancement for blepharoptosis.

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Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford, California, USA.



To evaluate, in patients with acquired good-function blepharoptosis, levator advancement success and surgical failure risk factors.


This retrospective, case-cohort study was university based. An estimated 828 patients underwent levator advancement for acquired good-function blepharoptosis between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 1999. Seventy-two patients underwent reoperation during the first postoperative year. Of 125 randomly selected patients not undergoing reoperation, 106 met the desired outcome criteria: postoperative margin reflex distance (MRD) >/=2.0 mm and </=4.5 mm in operated eyes and </=1.0 mm asymmetry between eyelids. Mean MRD, levator function, and Hering dependence (ipsilateral eyelid elevation exacerbating contralateral blepharoptosis) prevalence were determined for reoperated and desired-outcome groups and compared by using 2-sample t test and the Fisher exact test, respectively. Multivariate analysis was also performed.


Reoperative rates were 8.7% overall, 5.2% of unilateral, and 13% of bilateral cases. Fourteen percent of patients had results outside the desired range but declined reoperation. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in preoperative characteristics between desired and undercorrected groups: MRD, 1.0 versus 0.32 mm (p=0.001); levator function, 15.4 versus 14.7 mm (p=0.013); and Hering dependence, 50% versus 79% (p=0.005). With multivariate analysis, bilateral blepharoptosis was statistically significant (p=0.014), whereas levator function and Herring dependence were not. No differences were seen between desired and overcorrected groups.


After levator advancement for acquired good-function blepharoptosis, 77% of patients had ideal results and 8.7% underwent reoperation. Patients with bilateral or severe blepharoptosis have increased risk of undercorrection.

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