Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1163-7.

Increased risk of carcinoma in situ in patients with testicular germ cell cancer with ultrasonic microlithiasis in the contralateral testicle.

Author information

University Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark.



We compared clinical and histological data regarding the contralateral testicle in a population of men diagnosed with testicular germ cell cancer to find features associated with an increased risk of bilateral neoplasia.


Clinical data obtained from the records of 79 men seen during the period 1998 to 2001 included history, physical and ultrasound examination, and the results of semen and hormonal analysis. Contralateral testicular biopsies were obtained from all men and analyzed for carcinoma in situ (CIS), microcalcifications (microliths) and other signs of testicular dysgenesis.


Ultrasound examination of the contralateral testicle was performed in 64 of the cases. The echo pattern was judged normal in 30 cases, slightly irregular in 22, irregular in 3 and showed microlithiasis in 9. The frequency of microlithiasis seen on ultrasound was significantly higher among patients with CIS (p <0.001) compared to those with a normal echo pattern (Fisher's exact test). The overall frequency of reported cryptorchidism was 18.7% with no difference in seminoma and nonseminoma distribution between patients with or without a history of cryptorchidism. The median age of patients with cryptorchidism, 25.8 years (range 15.8 to 31.7), was significantly younger (the Mann-Whitney test p <0.05) than the age of those with normal testicular descent, 31.4 years (range 17.8 to 52.9).


The finding of contralateral testicular microlithiasis on ultrasound in a patient with testicular germ cell cancer increases the risk of harboring carcinoma in situ in that testicle (odds ratio 28.6; CI: 4.8-170.4). Conversely, a normal ultrasound pattern does not exclude the risk of CIS. Whether sonographic microlithiasis found in other subgroups of patients or in men from the general population also implies an increased risk of testicular CIS remains to be clarified.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center