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J Immunol. 2003 Oct 1;171(7):3348-52.

Cutting edge: CD28 controls peripheral homeostasis of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

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  • 1University of California San Francisco Diabetes Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.


CD28/B7 blockade leads to exacerbated autoimmune disease in the nonobese diabetic mouse strain as a result of a marked reduction in the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Herein, we demonstrate that CD28 controls both thymic development and peripheral homeostasis of Tregs. CD28 maintains a stable pool of peripheral Tregs by both supporting their survival and promoting their self-renewal. CD28 engagement promotes survival by regulating IL-2 production by conventional T cells and CD25 expression on Tregs.

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