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Behav Brain Res. 1992 Sep 28;50(1-2):17-30.

Neural correlates of frog calling: production by two semi-independent generators.

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Department of Pharmacology, Loyola University of Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL.


The anterior preoptic nuclei of the isolated brainstem of male, Northern leopard frogs (Rana p. pipiens) were stimulated electrically and neural correlates of mating calling recorded from the rhombencephalic mating calling pattern generator. Lesions of discrete areas of the brainstem showed that the mating calling generator is separable into two generators, the pretrigeminal nucleus and the classical pulmonary respiration generator (which is approximately co-extensive with the motor nuclei IX-X). Each of these still can produce pulses when isolated from the other. Their interaction changes the expiratory phase of breathing into the vocal phase of calling. All stages of intermediates between these phases could be seen. An updated and simplified model of call production and evolution is presented.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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