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Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992 Nov;90(5):830-7; discussion 838-40.

Problem neck, hyoid bone, and submental myotomy.

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Division of Plastic Surgery, Mt. Sinai Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.


Despite significant attention to the cervical region over the last two decades, the hyoid bone has not received deserved recognition. In this report, the anatomy and role of the hyoid bone and suprahyoid muscles in cervicomental morphology are reviewed. From an analysis of cephaloxerograms on 54 patients, it was concluded that on a balanced neck, the most caudal border of the hyoid body is located at or above a line parallel to the Frankfort horizontal line passing through the most caudal border of the mandibular symphysis (menton). Of the muscles that control the position of the hyoid bone, the anterior belly of the diagastric, geniohyoid, and mylohyoid muscles pull the hyoid bone cephalad and anteriorly. The stylohyoid muscles, on the other hand, pull this bone cephalad and posteriorly, while the sternohyoid and omohyoid muscles pull it caudally. Transection of the first three muscles at their attachment to the posterior aspect of the mandible in patients with dysmorphic necks due to caudal and anterior hyoid position will allow posterior and cephalad relocation of this bone, which improves the neck contour. Sixteen patients, with an average follow-up of 27 months, have undergone this procedure, with cervicomental contour improvement in all cases. The degree of improvement ranged from 1 to 5 (5 being excellent): One patient was ranked 1, two patients were ranked 2, two patients were ranked 3, and the rest were ranked 4 or 5. One patient had overcorrection as a result of an aggressive concomitant submental lipectomy. Another patient had central depression in the submental area. None of the patients had difficulties with mandibular movement or swallowing.

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