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Can J Anaesth. 1992 Sep;39(7):661-4.

Analgesic efficacy and safety of a caudal bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture in children.

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Department of Anaesthesia, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Erratum in

  • Can J Anaesth 1993 Mar;40(3):288.


The analgesic efficacy and safety of a single caudal injection of a bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture was investigated in this prospective, controlled, triple-blinded study of 34 children, aged 1-11 yr and of ASA physical status I-II undergoing urological surgery. After induction of anaesthesia and before surgery, the children were randomly assigned to receive a caudal injection of 1.0 bupivacaine 0.125% with epinephrine 1:400,000 and either fentanyl 1.0 in 1.0 ml of normal saline or 1.0 ml of normal saline. After completion of surgery, patients were assessed in the recovery room for six hours from the time of the caudal injection and for a further 18 hr on the ward. While in the recovery room arterial oxygen saturation and respiratory rate were monitored continuously and recorded hourly together with end-tidal carbon dioxide, pain and sedation scores. Other complications were also recorded. While on the ward, pain and sedation scores, respiratory rate and side effects were recorded every two hours. Postoperative analgesia was provided by intravenous morphine. Analgesic requirements were recorded for the 24-hr study period. Pain and sedation scores did not differ between groups. Respiratory depression or hypoxia did not occur. The incidences of other side effects did not differ. There were no differences in the numbers of patients requiring morphine within eight hours, the time to first morphine administration or the total morphine requirements. We conclude that a single caudal injection of a bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture with epinephrine administered prior to surgery, while safe, offers no advantage over an injection of bupivacaine 0.125% with epinephrine for paediatric urological surgery.

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