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Brain Behav Evol. 1992;40(1):1-16.

Afferent and efferent connections of the bullfrog medial pallium.

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  • 1Neurobiology Unit, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.


Horseradish peroxidase or tritiated proline was unilaterally injected into the medial pallium in bullfrogs in order to determine the sources of afferent projections to the medial pallium and the targets of pallial efferent projections. Some cells in all telencephalic centers, except the corpus striatum and the pars lateralis of the amygdala, project to the ipsilateral medial pallium. The medial pallium receives projections from fewer centers in the contralateral hemisphere, which include the medial septal nucleus, the pars medialis of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the pallial commissure and the medial pallium. The raphe nucleus and the anterior thalamic nuclei appear to be the only sources of afferents to the medial pallium from outside the telencephalon. Efferents of the medial pallium are far more extensive than reported in earlier studies. The medial pallium projects ipsilaterally to all telencephalic nuclei, with the exception of a large part of the corpus striatum, and contralaterally to the medial septal nucleus, the olfactory tubercle, amygdala, medial pallium and bed nucleus of the pallial commissure. Extensive efferent projections also terminate in preoptic and hypothalamic regions, as well as in most thalamic relay nuclei, the pretectum and, possibly, the optic tectum. Similarities to the medial pallium in other tetrapods and to that in mammals suggest that the medial pallium in anurans is homologous to the subicular and CA fields and, possibly, the dentate gyrus in mammals. However, the extensive projections of the medial pallium to the dorsal thalamus and pretectum in anurans may be primitive features of the medial pallium retained in anurans, or uniquely derived features in anurans.

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