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J Immunol. 1992 Nov 1;149(9):2954-60.

Effects of tumor necrosis factor, lipopolysaccharide, and IL-4 on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in vivo. Correlation with CD3+ T cell infiltration.

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Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.


We have injected human TNF, LPS, and IL-4 into the skin of baboons to examine regulation of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules (ELAM) in vivo and to determine which endothelial adhesion molecules correlate temporally and spatially with cytokine-induced T cell infiltration. The expression of adhesion molecules ELAM-1 (E-selectin), VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 (CD54) were quantified by immunocytochemical staining of frozen sections obtained from skin biopsies; T cell infiltration was measured by immunocytochemical staining of CD3+ T cells in serial sections. We found that injection of TNF causes late (24 to 48 h) T cell infiltration whereas injection of LPS, in doses that do not cause tissue necrosis, does not. The ability of TNF (but not LPS) to recruit T cells correlates with the ability of TNF to cause sustained endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression. Expression of VCAM-1 on post-capillary venules showed the highest degree of spatial localization with infiltrates. IL-4, although not proinflammatory by itself, can cause T cell infiltration in combination with an ineffective dose of TNF. The ability of IL-4 to augment TNF-induced inflammation best correlates with the ability of the combination of IL-4 and TNF to increase endothelial VCAM-1 expression. In contrast, IL-4 does not promote T cell infiltration or endothelial VCAM-1 expression in combination with LPS. In cytokine-injected tissues, VCAM-1 is also expressed on connective tissue cells other than endothelium, including smooth muscle and perineural cells, where it is induced by cytokines in parallel with endothelial VCAM-1. Overall, our data support the hypothesis that endothelial VCAM-1 expression contributes to T cell extravasation at sites of inflammation. Furthermore, we find that IL-4, a product a Ag-activated T cells, can interact with TNF to selectively promote VCAM-1 expression and the development of T cell-rich infiltrates, characteristic of Ag-induced inflammatory reactions.

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