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J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992 Jan;19(1):142-8.

Bulboventricular foramen size in infants with double-inlet left ventricle or tricuspid atresia with transposed great arteries: influence on initial palliative operation and rate of growth.

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Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.


Bulboventricular foramen obstruction may complicate the management of patients with single left ventricle. Bulboventricular foramen size was measured in 28 neonates and infants greater than 5 months old and followed up for 2 to 5 years in those patients whose only systemic outflow was through the foramen. The bulboventricular foramen was measured in two planes by two-dimensional echocardiography, its area calculated and indexed to body surface area. One patient died before surgical treatment. The mean initial bulboventricular foramen area index was 0.94 cm2/m2 in 12 patients (Group A) in whom the foramen was bypassed as the first procedure in early infancy. The remaining 15 patients underwent other palliative operations but the bulboventricular foramen continued to serve as the systemic outflow tract. There was one surgical death. Six (Group B) of the 14 survivors developed bulboventricular foramen obstruction during follow-up (mean initial bulboventricular foramen area index 1.75 cm2/m2). The remaining eight patients (Group C) did not develop obstruction during follow-up and had an initial bulboventricular foramen larger than that in the other two groups (mean initial bulboventricular foramen area index 3.95 cm2/m2). All patients with an initial bulboventricular foramen area index less than 2 cm2/m2 who did not undergo early bulboventricular foramen bypass developed late obstruction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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