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Virology. 1992 Jan;186(1):99-112.

Domains of herpes simplex virus I glycoprotein B that function in virus penetration, cell-to-cell spread, and cell fusion.

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Division of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of California San Francisco 94143-0512.


Herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein B (gB) is one of 10 glycoproteins in the virion envelope and in the membranes of infected cells. It is required for infection of cells in culture and functions in penetration of the cell by fusing the virion envelope with the plasma membrane. In studies to map the functional domains on HSV-1 gB, we reported that epitopes of potent neutralizing antibodies cluster in three major antigenic domains, D1, D2, and D5a. D1 contains continuous epitopes in the very amino terminus of gB. D2 comprises discontinuous epitopes that are assembled on gB derivatives 457 amino acids in length. D5a contains discontinuous epitopes that map between amino acids 600 and 690. We have now analyzed the function of these domains in virion infectivity by a detailed examination of the effects of 16 neutralizing antibodies on virion adsorption, penetration, plaque development, and cell fusion. Our results are as follows. (i) Ten antibodies with complement-independent neutralizing activity blocked penetration of virions into cells but not their adsorption to the cell surface. Treating cell-bound, neutralized virus with the fusogenic agent polyethylene glycol promoted their entry into cells. (ii) Ten antibodies with complement-dependent and -independent neutralizing activity interfered with plaque development by preventing spread of virus from infected to neighboring uninfected cells. (iii) Nine neutralizing antibodies, all complement-independent, prevented cell fusion induced by strain HFEM syn. We conclude that domains mapping in three regions of gB function in penetration of virions into cells, and that most neutralizing antibodies to these domains also block cell-to-cell spread of virus and cell fusion. The findings that three complement-independent neutralizing antibodies that blocked penetration did not inhibit plaque development, and that only one of these blocked cell fusion, indicate that the cell-to-cell spread of virus and cell fusion are related processes, but not identical to the penetration function.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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