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Parasitol Res. 2003 Nov;91(5):412-38. Epub 2003 Sep 16.

Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of zoonotic cestode infections: an update.

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Fa Aventis, ADMEP /Q0/10, 65926 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.


This paper reviews the literature on zoonotic cestode infections with specific reference to the years 1999-2003. The sources and prevalence of various zoonotic tapeworm infections caused by adult and larval stages of the genera Taenia, Echinococcus, Diphyllobothrium, Hymenolepis and Dipylidium continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality, not only in most underdeveloped countries but also in industrialized countries, particularly in rural areas or among immigrant groups from endemic areas. The review gives a detailed report on recent molecular epidemiological studies on the taxonomy and phylogenetic variations in Echinococcus granulosus, immunological tests and imaging techniques used in epidemiological surveys and clinical investigations of important adult and larval tapeworm infections of animals and humans. Larval stages or metacestodes of Taenia solium, Echinococcus spp. and pseudophyllidean tapeworms (Spirometra syn. Diphyllobothrium spp.) may reside in various tissues of their intermediate hosts, including humans. In particular, Cysticercus cellulosae (T. solium) and the larvae of E. granulosus, and E. multilocularis, which are predominantly located in the liver, lungs and central nervous system forming various types of cysts, lead to a complex of systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis, respectively. Relatively rare clinical manifestations are seen in the muscles, subcutaneous tissue, spleen, kidneys, bones and body cavities.

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