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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Sep 17;42(6):1132-9.

A novel point-of-care enoxaparin monitor for use during percutaneous coronary intervention. Results of the Evaluating Enoxaparin Clotting Times (ELECT) Study.

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  • 1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.



The aim of this study was to discern a target range of anticoagulation for enoxaparin during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as measured by the Rapidpoint ENOX (Pharmanetics Inc., Morrisville, North Carolina), a new point-of-care test.


In the U.S., enoxaparin has been used in only a small proportion of PCI procedures, partly because a rapid enoxaparin-specific assay was unavailable.


We analyzed data from 445 enrolled patients receiving subcutaneous or intravenous enoxaparin in a prospective, multicenter study. Serial anticoagulation measurements and clinical outcomes were recorded.


The in-hospital composite occurrence of death, myocardial infarction, and urgent target vessel revascularization was 5.4%, and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major bleeding, minor bleeding, and any reported bleeding occurred in 0.2%, 1.3%, and 7.9% of patients, respectively. No significant association between procedural ENOX times and ischemic events was observed (p = 0.222), although the event rate was 4.0% among those with ENOX times between 250 to 450 s versus 7.2% for those outside this range (p = 0.134). Increasing ENOX time at sheath removal was correlated with any bleeding (p = 0.010) with a 1% increase for every approximately 30-s rise.


Ischemic events were infrequent, and the rate appeared lowest in the mid-range of ENOX times. Bleeding events increased with increasing ENOX times. These observations, combined with a suggested procedural anti-Xa level of 0.8 to 1.8 IU/ml, translate into a recommended ENOX time range of 250 to 450 s for PCI and <200 to 250 s for sheath removal.

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