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J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2003 Aug;23(8):457-66.

TNF-alpha microinjection upregulates chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system without inducing leukocyte infiltration.

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Department of Neurology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.


Chemokines (chemoattractant cytokines) are key players in the initiation of inflammatory cell accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS). Mechanisms leading to upregulation of chemokines in CNS pathologic conditions remain largely unknown. Numerous in vitro studies showed that inflammatory cytokines stimulate cultured CNS cells to produce chemokines. The main goal of this study was to analyze if an individual proinflammatory cytokine is sufficient to upregulate the chemokine system in the adult CNS in vivo. We analyzed CC chemokine ligand and receptor expression in brains from two different strains of mice (SJL and BALB) after stereotaxic, intracerebral injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In both strains, we detected similarly increased expression of chemokines RANTES/CCL5, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha)/CCL3, MIP-1beta/CCL4, and MIP-2, as well as chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5. Interestingly, we did not observe parenchymal leukocyte infiltrates after local TNF-alpha delivery. This observation shows that upregulation of chemokines by TNF-alpha is not sufficient to cause accumulation of leukocytes in the CNS parenchyma in both strains of mice.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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