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Can Vet J. 2003 Aug;44(8):643-8.

An evaluation of the analgesic effects of meloxicam in addition to epidural morphine/mepivacaine in dogs undergoing cranial cruciate ligament repair.

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Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4.


The analgesic efficacy of an epidural morphine/mepivacaine combination alone versus epidural morphine/mepivacaine in combination with meloxicam administered prior to the onset of anesthesia was assessed in 20 dogs undergoing cranial cruciate ligament repair. Numerical and visual analog pain scores were performed prior to anesthesia and at 6, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hours after epidural administration by a trained observer, blinded to treatment. An analgesiometer was used to determine the amount of pressure required to produce an avoidance response at the incision site. Animals that received meloxicam demonstrated a trend toward decreased pain scores over all time periods. Visual analog pain scores tended to be lower in dogs receiving meloxicam across all time periods, with a significant interaction between time and visual analog score at 6 and 8 hours (P < 0.05). No dogs receiving meloxicam required rescue analgesia, while 3 of 10 dogs in the epidural only group required rescue analgesia. Administration of meloxicam in addition to epidural morphine plus mepivacaine conveys improved analgesia as compared with epidural alone. Postoperative analgesia is reliably maintained for 24 hours following administration.

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