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Am J Vet Res. 2003 Sep;64(9):1155-60.

Effects of morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine-lidocaine-ketamine drug combination on minimum alveolar concentration in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane.

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  • 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.



To determine the effects of constant rate infusion of morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) combination on end-tidal isoflurane concentration (ET-Iso) and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane and monitor depth of anesthesia by use of the bispectral index (BIS).


6 adult dogs.


Each dog was anesthetized with isoflurane on 5 occasions, separated by a minimum of 7 to 10 days. Individual isoflurane MAC values were determined for each dog. Reduction in isoflurane MAC, induced by administration of morphine (3.3 microg/kg/min), lidocaine (50 microg/kg/min), ketamine (10 microg/kg/min), and MLK, was determined. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2), core body temperature, and BIS were monitored.


Mean +/- SD isoflurane MAC was 1.38 +/- 0.08%. Morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, and MLK significantly lowered isoflurane MAC by 48, 29, 25, and 45%, respectively. The percentage reductions in isoflurane MAC for morphine and MLK were not significantly different but were significantly greater than for lidocaine and ketamine. The Spo2, mean arterial pressure, and core body temperature were not different among groups. Heart rate was significantly decreased at isoflurane MAC during infusion of morphine and MLK. The BIS was inversely related to the ET-Iso and was significantly increased at isoflurane MAC during infusions of morphine and ketamine, compared with isoflurane alone.


Low infusion doses of morphine, lidocaine, ketamine, and MLK decreased isoflurane MAC in dogs and were not associated with adverse hemodynamic effects. The BIS can be used to monitor depth of anesthesia.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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