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Nihon Rinsho. 1992 Jul;50(7):1542-7.

[The metabolic basis of the hyperphenylalaninemias and tyrosinemia].

[Article in Japanese]

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Department of Pediatrics, Osaka City University Medical School.


The hyperphenylalaninemias are caused by the defect of either phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) cofactor. The former is diagnosed as phenylketonuria (PKU) or benign hyperphenylalaninemia, based on the serum phenylalanine values. The latter, so called malignant hyperphenylalaninemia, includes three enzyme defects, dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR), 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase (PT PS) and guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GTP-CH). Excess phenylalanine and its metabolites cause brain damage before 6 years of age. Deficiency of BH4 impairs two other hydroxylases (tyrosine and tryptophan), and severe neurological symptoms develop because of the lack of neurotransmitters. Tyrosinemia I, II, and III are different enzyme defects, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolyase (FAH), hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate acid oxidase, respectively. Tyrosinemia I is associated with severe involvement of the liver, kidney and central nervous system. Tyrosinemia II has mental retardation, palmar hyperkeratosis and corneal ulcers. Tyrosinemia III has mild mental retardation but no eye or skin manifestations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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