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Ann Intern Med. 1992 Jul 15;117(2):106-11.

Low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis for toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS.

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1
St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the efficacy of low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (trimethoprim, 160 mg plus sulfamethoxazole, 800 mg; one tablet twice daily, 2 days per week) as primary prophylaxis against toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and previous Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

DESIGN:

A retrospective study.

SETTING:

Tertiary referral teaching hospital.

PATIENTS:

During a 3-year period after primary episodes of P. carinii pneumonia, 60 patients received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 95 patients received pentamidine (aerosolized in 78 patients and intravenous in 17 patients) as secondary prophylaxis.

RESULTS:

No patient in the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group and no patient seronegative for Toxoplasma gondii developed toxoplasmic encephalitis, compared with 12 of 36 (33%; 95% Cl, 19% to 51%) seropositive patients in the pentamidine group (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compared with pentamidine, P = 0.008). A significant difference was seen in the time to development of toxoplasmic encephalitis between the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole group (no case at 1153 days) and the pentamidine group (median time, 460 days) (P = 0.004). Neither the CD4+ lymphocyte count at the start of prophylaxis nor zidovudine therapy during the period of prophylaxis influenced the rate of toxoplasmic encephalitis in any group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (four tablets per week) appears to be effective prophylaxis against toxoplasmic encephalitis in HIV-infected patients with previous P. carinii pneumonia. A prospective, randomized, controlled study is needed to further evaluate these findings.

Comment in

PMID:
1351371
DOI:
10.7326/0003-4819-117-2-106
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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